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Full text of "موسوعة قصة الحضارة"

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CHAPTER XV 

i. Abbott, Q.F., Israel in Egypt, 43. 

2. Baron, S., So«a/ and Religious 
Bistort of the Jews, I, 266 ; 
Oratez, H., History of the Jews, 
II, 566. 

3. Socrates, Ecclesiastical History, 
Hi; 20; Julian, Works, III, 51. 

•4. Abbott, 45. 

6. Ammianus Marcellinus, Works, 
xxili, 1. 

6. Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah, 

vl, 11-13, in Baron, I. 261. 

7. Baron, I, 255. 

8. Baeder,Qershom jewisk Spiritual 
Heroes, HI, 46. 

9. Talmud, Yebamoth, 37b. 

10. Friedlfinder, L„ Raman Life 
aud Manners under the Early 
Empire, HI, 173. 

11. Oregory of Tours Blstory, of 
the. Franks, 1916, viii, 1. 

42. References to the Mishna will 
be by tractate, chapter, and 
section; to the (Babylonian) 
demara by tractate and folio 
sheet. 

13. Baba Kama, 60b. 

14. Megilla, 16b, 

15. Tanhuma, ed. Buber, Yitro. sect. 
7, in^Moore, O. F., Judiasm in 



the First Centuries of the Chris- 
tian Era, II, 242. 

16. Meuachotb, 99b, 

17. Pesikta Rabbit), .10, 4. in New- 
man, L., and Spitz, S., Talmudlc 
Anthology. 300. 

IS. Chagiga, 10a, 

19. Examples in Moore, I, 259. 

20. Berachotfa. 6b. 

21. Aboda Ztra, 8b; Newman, 31. 

22. Chagiga, 3b. 
33. Succah, 59b. 
24. Barachoth, 6a. 

85. Aboda Zara, 3b. 

26. Mcchilta, 65a, on Exod. xix, 18. 

27. From Deut. vi, 4. 

38. Shebouth, 77b. 
29. Erubin, 18a, 

80. BereBhit Rabbah on Gen. xxiii,9. 
3). Berachotb, 6a 

32. Aboda Zara, 5a. 

33. Sifre on Deut. 32. 

34. Shebuoth, 55a. 

35. Midtash Mithle, 28, in Newman, 

86. Oenetis Rabbah, xlviii, 8. 

87. Babo Metzia, 58b, 

88. Berochoth, 34a. 

39. Ketuboth, 11 la. 

40. Wayyikra Rabboh, 34. in New- 
man, 108. 



-4*n - 



41. Bereihlt Rabbah, 44,1, in New- 
man, 892. 

42. Quoted In Cohen, K.,Everyman's 
Talmud, 89. 

43. Aboda Zara, 30b. 

44. Kiddushin. 66d. 

45. Shebuoth, 41a, 

46. In Cohen, A„ 258. 

47. Leviticus xxi, 3-5. 

48. Yebamoth, 48b, 

49. Ketuboth, 27 : Cohen, A„ 257, 
60. Pesachim, 113a, 

51. Shebuoth, 152, 
58; Pesachlm, 49b. 

53. Exod. xxiii, 19 J xxiv, 26 ; Deut 
xiv, 21, 

54. Nidda, 17. 

55. Yoma, 75. 

56. Shebuoth, 33. 

57. Ibid., 152a. 

58. Baba Bathra, 58b. 

59. Pesachlm, 109a. 

60. Berachoth, 55a, 60b. 

61. Taanith, 11a. 

62. Pesachim, 108. 

63. Exod. xii, 13. 

64. Megilla on Esther, 7b, in Moore, 
II, 51. 

65. In Oesterley, W.O., and Box, O. 
H„ Short Survey of the Ltterw 
tare of Rabbinical and Medieval 
Judaism, 149. 

66. Kiddushin, 31a; Isaiah vi, 8, 

67. Baba Bathra, 8b; Baron, 1,277-8. 

68. Berachoth, 10a. 

69. Oen. I, 28; Kiddushin, 29. 

70. Genesis Rabbah, Ixxi, 6. 

71. Yebamoth, 12b; Hlmes, N. E., 
Medical History of Contncoj 
tlon, 77. 

72. Baba Bathra, 72. 

78. Exodus Rabbah, I, 1. 

( i oi* - r £- r • ) 



74. Harris, M. H., ed., Hebraic 
Literature : Translation form 
the Talmud, MidrasMm, and 
Kabbala, 336. 

75. Baba Bathra, 9a, 

76. Ketuboth, 50a, 67, 

77. Taanth, 22. 

78. Ibid., 20b. 

79. Qraitz., II, 486, 545. 

80. Baba Batbra, 9. 

81. Qittin, 70a. 

82. Chagiga, 16a. 

83. Berachoth, 61a. 

84. Kiddushin, 29b. 

85. Sota. 44a 

86. Taanith, Iv, 8. 

87. Yebamoth, 63a. 

88. Ibid., 65a, 44a. 

89. Pesikta Rabbati, 36, 2, in New- 
man, 3. 

90. Berachoth, xxlv, 1. 

91. Kiddushin, 4. 

92. Yebamoth, xiv, 1 ; )64b. 

93. Qittin, Ix, 10. 

94. Ketuboth, vli, 6. 

95. Cohen, A., 179, 

96. Ketuboth, 77a; Nenman, A. (A., 
The Jews in Spain, Philadel- 
phio, 1942, II, 59. 

97. Yebamoth, xxi, in Beader.III , 66. 

98. Qittin, 90b. 

99. Kiddushin, 80b. 

100. Nidda, 46. 

101. Kiddushin, 49o. 

102. Yoma. 83b. 

103. Mlkvaoth, 9b, in Cohfn,A., 17 

104. Hal Oaon in Newman, 640. 

105. Yebamoth, 88. 
Kttvbcth 47b. 

107. Shebuoth, 30b. 

108. Erubin, 41b. 

109. Baeder, III, 16. 



tnv 



110. Bereshit Rahbah, xvil, 7" 

Ul> Harris, M: H' Hebraic Litem- 

' turt 340* 
119. Pirke Aboth, iv, 1. 

113. Ibid., iv, 3. 

114. Ibid., i, 17. 

115. Ibid., iii, 17. 

116. Shemot Rabbab, xxv, 16 New- 
man, 897. 

117. Menachoth 29b, in Moore, 11,187. 

118. Renin, E., Origins of Chris- 
tianity : The Christian Chruch, 
131 ; Baron, I, 305-6, 

CHAPTER XVI 
Qraetz, III, 308. 
Abrahams, Israel Jewish Life 
in the Middle Ages, SI 9. 
Benjaman of Tudela, Travels, in 
Kotnroff, t\.,t&., Contemporaries 
of Marco Polo, 290. 
Qraetz, HI, 90. Others date the 
Qaonate from 589 : cf. Oester- 
ley and Box, 209. 
Oraez, III, 183. 
Ibid., 148. 

Druck, D., Yehuda Halevy, 66. 
Baron' 1, 863. 

Huslk, I., History of Medieval 
Jewish Philosophy, 86. 42f. 
Malter, H., Saadia QaoA,279,29l 
Benjamin of Tudela, in Komrolf 
310. 

Biron. I, 318. 
Friedlander, III, 181. 
Dili, Sir S., Roman Society In 
Oaal in the MerovenglanAgefiiB 
Oroett, III, 143, 161, 241, S89. 
Benj. of Tudela, in Komroff,260. 
Ibid., 257. 

Ameer AH, Sayed, The Spirit of 

Islam, 260. 

Druck, 26. 

Dozy, R., Spanish Islam, 6971. 



4. 



5. 
6. 
7. 
-8. 
9. 

10. 
11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 

16. 

!16. 

17. 

18. 

19. 
20. 



2 1. Abbott, Q. P., 71. 

22' Abrbhams, Jewish Life, 866. 

98. Dozy, 72). 

24. Qraetz, III, 617. 

26. Neuman, K,,Jews In Spain, 1,6, 

26. Ibid., 164. 

27. Ibid., II, 184. 

28. Ibid., Ii, 231 ; Qraetz. Ill, 281. 

29. Neuman, II, 221. 

30. Qraetz, III, 360f. 

81. Baron II, 37/ Qraetz, III, 506. 

32. Neuman, II, 149. 

33. Ibid.. 247. 

84. Abrahams, Jewish Life, 67. 
35. Solom Asch in Browne, Lewis, 
ed., The Wisdom of Israel, 698. 
86. Baba Kama, 113a. 

37. Pirke Aboth, iii, 2. 

38. Baron, II, 17. 

39. Ibid., 26. 

40. Ibid. 

41. Bracton, De Leglbus, vi. 51, in 

Baron, II, 24 

42. Pollock, P., and Maitland, F.W., 
History of English Law bejore 

Edward I, 1, 466. 

43. Cambridge Medieval Bistort, 

II, 602. 

44. Ricard, T.A., Man and Metals, 
II, 602. 

45. Abrahams, Jewish Life, 241. 

46. Rapaport, S., Tales and Maxims 
from the Talmad, 147. 

47. Qraetz, HI, 229. 

48. Arnold, Sir, T., and Oulllaume, 
A. , The Legacy of Islam, 102. 

49. Pirenne, H., Medieval Cities,2b8. 

50. Baron, II, 8f. 

61. Jewish Encyclopedia, IV, 379. 
! . Deut. xxiii, 20. 
53.' Baba Metzis, v, 1-2, 11. 
64. Abrahams, Jewish Ltje, 110 



- tnr- 



56. Baron. II. 120. 

56. Pirenne, H., Economic and Social 

History of Medieval Europe, 1J4. 
67. Cambridge Medieval History, 

VII 614. 

58. Ibid,, 646. 

59. Neurnen, A., I, 202 ; Lacrolx, 

P. t Manners Customs and Dress 
during, the Middle Ages, 451. 

60. Coulton, 0. 0., Medieval Pano- 
rama, 352. 

61. Abbott, Israel, I 13. 

62. Lacrolx, Manners, 451. 

63. Ashley, W. J. Introduction to 
Engllsk Economic Btstory and 
Theory 202. 

.64. Abbott, 177. 

65. Pollock and Malt! and, 451. 

66. Combrtdge Medieval Btstory, 
VI, 226. 

67. Abbott, 122, 
-68. Hnslk, 508. 

69. Abbott, 125; Oraeiz, III, 583. 

70. Abbott, 153; Lacrolx, Manners, 
446. 

71. In Foakes-Jacton, F., and Lake, 

K., Beginnings of Christianity, 

I, 76. 

72. Baba Bathra, 90. 

73. Baba Metzia, iv- 3. 

74. Baron, I, 277-8 ; II, 108. 
76. Baron, II, 99. 

76. Moore, II, 174-5. 

77. Abrahams, Jewish Life, 111, 619, 
326, 335 ; Baron, II, 99, 

78. Coulton, Panorama, 357. 

79. Abrahams, 277. 

80. Ibid., 58)^ 

•81. Burton, Sir R. F., The Jew, the 
Qypsy, and El Islam, 128; Baron 

II, 169 



82. Abrahams, 331, 
88. Baba Kama, 118b. 

84. Abrahams, 106. 

85. Ibid , 104. 

86. Ibid., 90. 

87. Baron, II, 112. 

88. Abrahams, 166. 

89. Kidduslgin,41a; Neuman,II, 21. 

90. Ibid. 

91. Moore, II, 22. 
9}. Abrahams, 117. 

94. Burton, The Jew, 43. 

95. White, F. M„ Woman in World 
History, 176. 

96. Abrahams, 165. 

97. Brittain, A., Womtn of Early 
Christianity, 10. 

98. White, 189. 

b9. Neuman, II, 229. 

100. White, 185. 

101. Marcus, J., The Jew in the 
Medieval World, 313. 

102. Abrahams, S3. 

103. Neuman, II, 153. 

104. Baroff, I, 888; II, 97. 

105. Abrahams, IS6. 

106. Brittain, 12. 
107 Moore, I, 316. 

108. Maimondee, Mlshneh Torah, 
- Book I, tr. Motes, Hayamson, 

63a. 

109. In Waxmau, M., History of 
Jewish Literature, I, 214, 

110. Jewish Encyclopedia, IX, 122. 

111. Oxford Bistor of Music* 
introd, volume, 60. 

112. Jewish Encyclopedia, III, 459. 
119a. In Zeitlin, S., Maimonides, 44' 

113. Baron, 11, 83. 
lU.Lacroix, Manners, 439. 

115. Baron, II, 36. 

116. Abrahams, 411 j Moore, II, 74. 



-nt- 



117. 
118. 

119. 
120. 

121. 
122. 

123. 

121, 

125. 

1-26. 
127. 
128. 
129. 



130. 
131. 
18?. 
13). 
134. 



135. 

188. 
137. 
138. 
139. 
140. 

HI. 

142. 
143. 
144. 

116. 
146. 
147. 
148. 

149. 

ISO, 
15|. 



Dent, vii, 3;Nehemlah xili, 25. 

Klausner, J., From Jesus to 

Paut, 515. 

Baron, II, 56. 

Oittln. 61. 

Abrahams, 418-4. 

Ibid., 418. 

Ibid., 434; Baron, II, 40. 

Baron, II, 36. 

Abbott, 93. 

Coulton, Panorama, 352. 

Ibid. 

Oraetz, IV, 33. 

Oregory I, Epistle if, 6, in 

Dudden, P. H., Oregory the 

Great, II, 165. 

Ep, xlii, 15, in Dudden, II. 155 
Belloc, H., Paris, 170. 

Qraetz, III, 421. 
Coulton, Panorama, 352. 
Thatcher, O. J., and McNeal, 
E.H., Source Book of Medieval 
History, 213. 

Lea, H.C., Blstory of the Inputs- 
Hon In the Middle Ages, II, 63. 
Qraetz, III, 563. 
Ibid., 583. 
Marcus, 151. 
Baron, II, 85. 

Abbott,5i; Jewish Encyclopedia 
III, 453. 

Camb. /Wwf.ff., VII, 624; Jewish 
Encyclopedia. IX, 368. 
Qraetz, III. 299. 
Ibid., 300. 

Ibid., 30 lfj Cambridge Medieval 
History, V.. 275f; VII, 641. 
Or* atz III, 350J Abbot, 88. 
Jewish Encyclopedia. IV, 379, 
Oraetz, HI, 35 S. 
Cambridge Medieval Birtory, 
VII, 642. 

Qraetz, IV, 35; Jewish Encyclo- 
pedia, IX, 358. 
Abbott, 144. 
Coulton, Panorama, 859. 



159. Cuninggham, W., Growth of 
English Industry and Commerte- 
204. 

158. Jewish Encyclopedia, IV, 379. 

154. Lacroix, Manners, 447. 

155. Oraetz, HI, 643; Abbott, 130. 

156. Abbott, 131. 

157. Ibid., 68. 

158. Lacroix, Manners, 447. 

159. Abbot. 68. 

160. Montesquieu, C. Baron de, T he- 
Spirit of Laws, I, xii, 5. 

161. Joseph ben Joshua ben Meir. 
Chronicles, I, 197. 

162. Marcus, 24. 

163. Oraetz, HI, 570. 

164. Villehardonin, Q. At,Chrontcles- 
of the Crusades, 148. 

165. Abbott. 118. 

166. Cambridge Medieval Blstory y 
VII, 64t. 

CHAPTER XVII 

1. Abuhims, Jewish Life 910. 

2. Ssrton, O., Introduction to the- 
Htatory of Socience, II (i), 295. 

3. Abrham*, I., Chap ers on Jewish 

Lttervture, 116. 

4. Waxman, I, 236. 
6. Qraetz, III, 269. 

6. Qabirol. SAbn,Seltcted Religious' 
Poems, tr, Israel Zan^will, 62. 

7. Ibd., 30. 

8. Abrahams, Literature, 109. 

9. Abrahams, Jewish Life, 163. 

10. In Wilson, E , ed. Hebrew 

Literature, 383. 
ll.Sarton, Il/i), 188. 

12. Ha|evi, J., Selected Poems, tr. 
Nina Salaman, 56. 

13. Abbott, 79. 

14. Druck, 97. 
16, Ibid,, 94. 

16. Wilson, Hebrew Literaturefltit-6. 

17. Novella 146 in Burton, The Jew, 
- 105. 



-l-\o 



18. Qraetz, IK, 673. 

19. Sarton, II (\i\ 557. 

20. Schechter, Si, Studies injudaism, 
I, 107. 

21. Qraetz, III, 604. 

22. Sarton, II, (i), 146. 

23. M Y. Times, June 2, 1937. 

24. Sarton, II, (i), 146. 

25. Cf. Komroff M. The Content- 
psraries of Marco Polo. 

26. Huslk, 24. 

37. Munk, S,, Melanges de phttoso- 
phie jutve et arabe 168. 

28. Marcus, 812. 

29. Cf. Oablrol, S. ibn, Improvement 
of the Moral Qualities, tr. 
Stephen Wise, 4, 27. 

30. Qabirol, Fons Vitae, i, 3, in 
Munk, 6. 

81. Halevi, J., Kltab 'al-Khazarl, lr. 
H. Hirschfeld, i, 1 16. 

82. Ibid., HI, 5, 7. 

83. Musik, 215. 

84. Vellin, D., and Abrahams, I., 
Maimonides, ll;Zeitlin, Maimo- 
nides, I, 

36. Ueberweg, P., History of Philo- 
sophy, I, 427. 

86. Zeitlto, Miitnonidea, 5. 

87. "Letter of Consolation" In- 
Yellin, 46. 

88. Zeltlin, 178. 

89. Arnold, Sir T., Preaching of 
Islam, 421. 

40. baron, S , ed.,£ ssays on Maimo- 
nides, 290. 

41. Maimonides, Aphorisms, in 
Thorndike, L, History, of Magic 

, and Experimental Science, J, 176. 
*?. Zellin, 172. 
43. In Baron, Essays, 288. 



44. Zeltlin, 174. 

45. Baron, Essays, 284. 

46. Maimonides, Mishneh Trab > 
Introd,, 4b. 

47. Zeltlin, 214. 

48. Mishneb Torab, Introd., 16. 3a. 

49. In Baron, Essays, 117. 

50. Maimonides, Guide to the Per* 
pexed tr. M., Friedlander, II,xli. 

61. ibid,, HI, 36, Baron, Essays, 
139. 

53. Guide, III, xxii,'xli; Deut. xxiii, 
17; Exod, xxii, lj xxxi, 15. 

63. Mtshaeh Torab, 40b. 

54. Ibid., 59a. 

55. Ibid , 64a, 

56. Ibid., 53a. 

57. Ibid., 5Bab. 

58. Ibid., 52b., 

59. In Baron, Essays, 110. 

60. Zetlin, 132. 

61. Guide, I, Introd. 

62. Ibid,, II, xix; III, xiv. 

63. II, Pt. II, Introd, and Prop xx. 
46. Ibid., xxxvi-xlxi. 

66. HI, xxii. 

66. II, xviif. 

67. II, xxx. 

98- HI, x, xii. 

69. Ill, Ixx. 

7 . Zeltlin, 151. 

71. Ibid., 103; Baron, Essays, 1 4». 

72. Guide, II, Pt. II, Introd. 

73. Baron, Essys, H9-2i ; Zeltlin, 
209. 

74. Marcus, 307-9. 

76. SPInoza, Tractatus Theologico- 

Polit'cus, xv, 4. 
79. Roth, L, Spinoza Descares, 

and Maimonides, C6; Baron, 

Essays, 7' 



-tvi- 



17. Husik, 302 ; Qraetz, IV, 23. 

78, Ibid., Ill, 631- 

79. Neuman, A., II, 128. 

«0. Ibid., 118; Qraetz, IV, 29-41. 

81. Jewish Encyclopedia.IU, 457,479. 

82. Sarton, II, (i), 866. 
88. Oraetz, V, 21. 

84. Baron, History, II, 136. 
«5. Ibid., 142. 

86. Abrahams, Jewish, Life, 143,167, 
198. 

In Marcns, 314. 

CHAPTER XVIII 

Thompson, J.W., Economic and 

Social History, 173. 

Oibbou, IV, 504. 

Cambridge Medieval History, "IL 
989. 

Ibid., IV, 6 ; Cllbbon, V, 142. 
In Diehl, Moiteul, 335. 
Cambridge • Medieval Hl.tory, 
IV, U5f. 

Voltaire, Works, XIII, 190. 
Diehl, Portraits 169; Bury, 
Eastern Roman Empire, 169. 
McCabe, J., Empresses of Cons- 
tantinople, 174. 

Cambridge Medieval History, IV, 
108.'; Diehl, Portraits, 264. 
Boiisonnade, P,, Life and Work 
in Medieval Europe, 66. 
Cambridge Medieval Uitory, 
IV, 760. 

Diehl, Portraits, 236. 
Cambridge Medieval History, 
IV. 746. 

Komroff, Contemporaries of 
Xarco Polo, 266. 

Cambridge Medival History, 

IV, 760. 
Ibid. 

Clapham and Power, 212, 
Diehl, Portraits, 158; Gibbon 

V, 458: Brittain, Women of, 
Eorly Christianity, 318. 



«7. 

1. 

2. 
3. 

4, 
S. 
6. 

7. 
8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 
14. 

15. 

16. 

17. 
1*. 
19. 



20. Lopez, R.S., in Spsculum, Vol' 
XX, No.l, pp. 17-18: Boltson- 
nade, 46-7; Cambridge Medieval 
History, IV, 761. 

21. Bolssonnade, 60, 
22 iDid., 61. 

98. Caatiglione, 264. 

24. Bury, Eastern Roman Empire, 
436; Qrunebaum, medieval Islam 
64. 

25. Psellus Chronographla, vi, 46. 
86. Ibid., v, 26-37. 

27. Diehl, Manuel, 406. 

28. Lultprand m Orinebaum, 29. 

29. Cf. Walker Trust Report, The 
Great Palace of the Byzantine 
Emperors, plates 24-37 and 57. 

80. The judgment of Kondakof in 

Diehl, Mvnuel, 580. 
31. Diehl, 690. 
32 Ibid., S81. 

83. Flttl*y,Qreece under the Romans, 
81. 

34. Thompson.J.W., FeudalQermauy, 

458. 

35. Kluchevsky, V. O. History of 
Rassla, 1, 46j:ihompaon,/ : '«idW 
Germany, 466. 

86. Pokrovsky, M. N., history of 
Russia 11; Fustel de Coulanges 
questioned this - cf. Dopsch, 36, 

37. Cambridge Medieval Elstoiy, 
IV, 136. 

38. Navor, J., Economic History of 
Russia, 1, 15. 

39. Kluchevsky, I, 88. 

40. Rambaud, A., History of Russia, 
1, 84. 

CHAPTER XIX 

1. Paul the Deacon, History of 

2. the Longobards, i, 9. 

3. Munro and Sellery, 538. 

4. Dante, Elleven Letters, 185. 

6. Note by W. D. Foulke in Paul 
the Deacon, 309. 



-nv_ 



6. Voltaire, Works, XII', 80. 

7. Molmenti, P., Venice, I, I, 212-4. 

8. Cambridge i Medieval History, 
HI, 170 

9. PIrenne, Medieval Cities, 1 10. 

10. Ruslcin, 5<««i 0/ 14/ito, I', 06. 

11. Lindane, R, Ancient Rome, 67. 

12. Ibid., 275. 

IS. Castlglone, 301. 

14. Dozy, Spanish Islam, 440. 

15. Coulton, Q, O., FiveCtntrutes 
of Religion, I, 17*, 

16. Hume, M, The Spanish, People, 
129 ; Spain, 191 J Encyclopedia 
Britannlca, V., 699. 

17. In Oulzot, Bistory, of France, 1, 
171. 

18. Ibid., 168. 

19. Pirenne, Cities, 243; Voltaire, 
XIII, 131. 

20. Freeman, E.k.,HistorlcalEssags, 
Pint Series, 179. 

21. Cambridge Medieval History, 
11, 316. 

23. Oulzot, France, I, S39f ; Oulzot, 
Bisory, of Civilization, II, 193*6. 

23. Pollock and Maitland, I, 117 , 
Barnes, H.C» History, oj Western 
Civilization, I, 776- 

24. Lea, Suptrstiion and Forte, 469, 

25. Oulzot Civilization, II, 225f. 

26. Capitulary of Charlemagne, year 
803, //3, in Oulzot Civilization, 
K. 222. 

27. In PIrenne, Cities, 166. 

28. Ibid., 68; Cambridge A edelval 
Bistory, II, 657. 

29. Cambridge, Medieval Bistory, 
II, 657. 

30. Letter of Alcuin in William of 
Malmesbury, i, 3, p. 66. 

.l\.Etf.*hn&,UfeofCharlemagne t b\, 



82. Hodlcir}, T., Charlemagne* 812. 

33. West, A F-, Alcuin, 65. 

34. Eginhard, p. 14. 

35. Ibid., 62. 

36. Ibid., 64. 

37. Capltulay of 802 in Bebel A., 
Woman under Socialism, 60. 

38. Eginhard, 83. 

89. Bury, Eastern Empire, 318, 

40, Eginhard, 66-8. 

41. Raby, F. J. History of Secular 
Latin Pottry In the Middle Ages, 
1, 190. 

43. Eginhaid, 52. 

48. Ibid., 48 ; Russell, C. E., Char- 
lemagne, 262. 

44. Oulzot, France, 1,-241. 

45. Morey, C. R .Medieval Art, 207. 

46. Ibid., 191. 

47. Davis Medieval England, 266. 

48. Quizot, Civilization, II, 375. . 

49. Erigena, ).§.De divisions naturae, 
i, 69. 

50. In Onizot, Civilizafin, II, 383. 

51. Erigena, // 617, 

62. Ibid., // 443 

63. // 518. 
54. // 896. 

65. // 919-26, 937-40. 

66. // 861. 

67. Poole, R. L., Illustration of the- 
History of Medieval Thought fiV 

58. Quizot, Civilization, II, 888. 
69. William of Malmesbury, ii, 4. 

60. Oulzot, France, I, 303 

61. Ibid., 311. 

62. Ibid., 329. 

63. Ibid., 336. 

CHAPTER XX 

1. Asser, Alfred the Great, 61. 

2. Asser, 66, 78, 86. 



- *1A~ 



3. Alfred, Preface to tr. of Oregory 
I's Cura patoralis, in Ogg, 
Sonne Book of Mediedval 
Historp, 191. 

4. Voltaire, Works, XIII, 176. 

•5. Boissonnade, £//# tuirf flPorA in 

Medieval' Europe, SB. 
•6. Oreen.r R., Conquest of England 

135, 329, 859-60. 
7. Srubbs, W.,Constltutionrl Blstory 

of England, \, 146, 157. 
•8. Hume, D., Bistory of England, 

I, 181. 
9. Pollock and Maltland, 11, 450. 

10. William of Malmesbury in Coul- 
ton, O.O., Social Life in Britain 
20 : Oreen, J. It., Making of 
England, 192. 

11. Traill, H. D., Soeal England, I, 
204. 

12. Hume. D.,kHistory of England I, 
188. 

18. Brlffault' R., The Mothers, 11,419. 

14. William of Malmesbury, i, 4. 

15. Ibid , 1, 2. 

16. Ibid., II, 6. 

17. Bede, v, 24. 

18. Ibid., I, 15. 

19. Ibid., Introd.. xvi. 

20. Oordon, R. K>. Anglo - Saxon 
Poetry, 81-2. 

31. In Ker, W.P., Epic and Romace, 
63. 

22. Beowulf, xxxvii and xllil, in 
Oordon, Anglo-Saxon ■ Poetry, 
60, 70. 

23. Bede, iv, 23. 

24. Plummer, Life and Times of 

Alfred the Great, II. 
£5. In Addiion, J., Ant and Crafts 
in the Midlte Ages, 4. 



96. Aldhelme (c. 709) in Addison, 
199. 

27. bede, iv, 18. 

28. freeman, E.A., Norman Conquest 
II, 298. 

29. William of Malmesbury, ili,238; 
Ordericus Vitalis, Bistoria Ecc 
hstastica, 492A ; Freeman, No ; 
man Conquest, Ii, 244. 

30. Outeot, Franee, 1,346; Frteman, 
Norman Conquest, III, 320. 

31. Mabinogion, If. 

32. Hyde, Lltwy History of Ireland 
238. 

83. Joyce, Short Blstory of Ireland, 
39-46, 

84. Thompson, J. W„ Economic 
fiistoru, 148. 

15. boiasonnade, 78. 

36. Joyce, 80. 

37. Ibid , 168. 

38. Ibid., 155, 168. 

39. Hyde, 322. 

40. Ibid., 239, 

41. Ibid., 279f. 

42. Thompson, Sir E. M„ Introd to 
Qreek and Latin Palaeography, 
374. 

43. Joyce, 189-92. 

44. Keating in Hyde, 488. 

45. Horn, F. W , Literature of the 
Scandinavian North, 13, Cam- 
bridg Medieval Bistory, II, 481 

46. Surluson, S., Betmshrlngla* 

47. Ibid., Haakou the Oood, ch.23. 

48. Ibid., Olai Tryggvesion, ch. 7. 

49. Ibid., ch. 93. 

50. Ibid., ch. 87. 

61. Ibid., St. Olaf.ch. 56, 131. 
52. Ibid., ch. 74. 



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53. Ibid., Appendix to Olaf Trygg- 
veion'8 Saga ; Encyclopedia 
Britannica. art. Columbus. 

64. Beomulf. xxxv. 

66. Sturluson, Son of Magnus, ch . 
33; Du-Challlu, II, 370-379. 

56. Saxo Qrammaticns, Danish His- 
tory, /, 28. 

57. Haskins, Encyclopedia, HI, 499c. 

58. DuDhaillu, II, I. 

59. Haskins, Normans in Europeau 
History, 36. 

60. DuChalllu, I, 486. 

61. Saxo, 2f>. 

62. Thompson, J. W., The Middle 
Ages, I, 827. 

63. Sturluson, Magnus tbe Good, 
ch. 16. 

64. Sigfusson, Saemudt The Elder 
Edda, 22 - 56. 

65. Ibid., 23. 

66. 59. 

67. 66. 

68. 14. 

69. 84. 

70. 102. 

71. 81. 

72. 65. 

73. 73. 

74. 121. 

75. 68. 

76. 56-6. 

77. 86. 

78. 68. 

79. Horn, Literature of the Scandi- 
navian North, 41. 

80. Faerejringa Saga In Ker, Epic 
and Romance, S36. 

81. Sturluson, Olaf Tryggvesson'a 
Jaga, ch. 9. 

2. Sturluson, Y.igllnga Saga, ch. 6 
and notejHodgkia, Charlemagne 
164; Saxo, 44. 

88. Milman, 111,216. Milman persua- 
sively defends the credibility 



84. Cambridge M:dievat Bistort, 

270. 
86. West, Alcttln, 127. 

86. Rab, F.J. E. Bistoy of Chriatlam 
Latin Poetry in the Middle Ages 
188. 

87. Welch, Alice K., Of Six Medieval 
Women, 5. 

88. Addison, Arts and Crafts, 16. . 

CHAPTER XXI 

1. Cambridge Medieval History, I, 
686. 

2. In Rassell, B., HisionW VPfmterH 
Phllosodhy, 879. 

3. Rule of St. Benedict, ch. 3, it 
Ogg. 87. 

4. Ch. r. 

5. Ch. 63. % 

6. Dudden, I, 111. 

7. In Mattland, S.R., Dark Ages, 

196 - 8. 

8. In Dudden, I, 58. 

9. Ibid., 289. 

10. Bede, ii, 1. 

11. Gregory of Tours, 287. 

12. Dudden, 1, 215, 

18. Thompson, J.W., Middle Ages, 
1, 178. 

14. Dudden, II, 156; McCabe, ]., 
Story of Rellgieus Controvery. 
307. 

15. Bede, ii, >• 

16. Ibid., 198. 

17. Gregory I, Ep. xlli, 46, in Dnd- 
den, 1, 278 . 

18. In Abelard, Oavrages Inidlts, 

Qaaestlo, la. 

19. Oregory 1, Magna Moralia, ia 
Dudden, II, 813. 

20. Dialogues, iv, 7, in Dudden, I, 

380. 

21. Dudden, H, 484f. 

22. Ibid., 38. 

23. ThompsoB.JW,M«VWM*!*s,I,"8. 



- iV» - 



24. Voltaire, Works, XIII, 90. 

25. Cambridge Medieval History, II, 

(90. 

26. Punk. 1,987; Cambridge Medieval 
Bistory, V, 710. 

27. In Milman, HI, 25. 

28. Gibbon, IV, 82, 

29. Sarton, I. 655. 

30. Poole, R.L., Illustration, SO. 

31. Taylor, H.O. Medieval Mlnd,\, 

136. 

32. Dudden, I, 86. 
88. Ibid. 

84. Montalembert.Comtede./WortAi 
of the West, I, 653. 

85. Ouizot, Civilization, II, 113-9: 
Toynbee, A.J., Study of History 
II, 331. 

36. Waddell, H„ Wandering Scholar 
34. 

37. Bede, I,* 17. 

88. William of Malmeibury, I, ?. 

39. Bede, i. 80. 

40. Bede, Letter to Egbert. 

41. Oreen, Making of England, 413. 

42. Qlbbon, V, 534. 

48. Coulton, FtveCenlu lis oi Redi- 
gton, I, 222. 

44. Ibid., 852. 

45. Cambridge Medieval History, 
V, 662. 

46. Ibid., Ill, 67. 

47. Milman, III, til. 

48. Cambridge Medieval History, 

III, 465. 

49. Mlllman, III, 160: McCabe, Crises 
In the History of the < papacy, 

128f. 

50. Ibid., 181, quoting the Liber 
Ponti/iealls, 

51. Milman, III, 171 : Cambridge 
Medieval Bistory, III, 465. 

61 Milman, III, 178. 
53. Ibid., 186f. 



54. Sandvs, Sir John, Companion to 
Latin Studies, 847. 

55. Vincet of Beauvait, Spec. Hist, 
In MJlruaa, III, 921. 

56. Thorndlk, Magic and JExperi- 
nuntal Soctence I, 704. 

67,'Cambriage .Mtdhval History, 
III, 109'. 

68. Hnlme, E.M. Middle Ages, 339; 
Conlton CO., Life In the Middle 
Ages., I, 1: Sarton. I, 734. 

59. Funk, I, 26?. 

60. Stephens. W.R. W. Hildebrand, 
14: Milman. III. 230: McCabe, 

Crises, 140. 

61. Cambridge Medieval History, 
10. 

63. Ouizot, France, I, 160. 

68, Porter, A. K. Medieval Architec- 
ture, II. 9. 

64. Ibid. 

65. farlvle R.W., History of Medie- 
val Political Theory In the West 
IV, 52. 

66. Coulton, Five Cecturles of Reli- 
gion, IV, 187. 

67. Coulton, From St. Francis to 
Dante, a tr. of The Chronicle 
of Sallmbene, 286. 

68. Cambridge Medieval History V, 
9-10. 

69. Catholic Encyclopedia, 1, 166 

70. Cambridge Medieval History, V, 

12. . 

71. Lea, Sacerdotal Celibacy, 210. 

72. Lecky Morals, II, 837. 

78. Lea, H,story of Auricular Con- 
Sessions, I, 46. 

74. Lettei to Egbert In Bede, p. 4. 

75. Catholic Encyclopedia, 1IT, 486. 

76. Cambridge Medieval History, 
IV, 968. 

77. Ibid,, 979. 



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78. Lea, Sacerdotal Celibacy, 194, 

223; Thompson, Social and 
Economic Bistory, 662. 

79. Lea, Celibacy, .826. 

80. Bryce, Jas„ Roman Empire, 158. 

81. Cambridge Medelvai BistoryV,99. 

82. Thompsn, Social and Economic 
Bistort, 663. 

83. Taylor, Medieval Mind, II, 65 

84. Letter of OregoryVIl to William 
1 Of England, 1080, in Bryce, 160. 

86. Catholic Encyclopedia, X, 871c. 

86. Figgis, Political Aspects of St. 
Augustine's City of Ood, 88. 

87. Catholic Encyclopedia, X, 871c. 

88. Carlyle,R.W., Medieval, Political 
Theory, IV, 64. 

89. &ttphttu,-Htldebrand, 116. 

90. Thatcher and McNeal, 169. 

91. Cumbrtnge Medieval Bistory, V' 
74f. 

CHAPTER XXII 

1. Lot., End of the Ancient World 
1S6. 

2. Dopsch, 283. 

£. Seebohra, F,, English Village 

Communty, 126f, 179. 
4. Seignobos, C, Feudal Regime, 

34, Barnes, Economtt Bistory, 

139. 
6. Clapham and Power, 237-8. 

6. Letters, iv,2. 

7. Coulton, O.O,, Medieval Village 
161. 

8. McCabe, Story of Religius 
Controvert, 323. 

9. Thompson, Social and Econo- 
mic History, 679, 

10. Coulton, Medieval Village,- 49?. 

11. Coulton, MedtevalPanorama,322 



12. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theo- 
logica, Hlae, xclv, 3. 

13. Decree of Fourth Council of 
Orleans, in Dopsch, 860. 

14. Lecky, Morals, II, 7o, Sarton, 
II (li). 799, but cf. Catholic 
Encyclopedia, XIV, 38. 

15. Ashley. Introdjo English Econo- 
mic Bistory, II, 276. 

16. Coulton, Medieval Village, 59. 

17. Weittrmark, E., Short Bistory 
of Marriage, U: Coulton, Medie- 
val Village, 80. 

18. Relgnobos, 14: Coulton./Wfttoea/ 

Village. 164. 

19. Bebel. 57. 

20. Cambridge Medieval Bistory, 
VII, 711. 

21. Coulton, Life In the Mtdd eAges, 
III, 123-5. 

31a. Cambridge Medieval History. 
• VII. 22. 

28. Seignobos, 21. 

S3. Coulton, Medieval Village, 65. 
84. Cram R.A., Substance of Qothtc 

181. 
26. Lynn White. Jr. in Speculum. 

Apr. 1940. p. 151. 
26. Taine. H. Ancient Regmle. 9, 

Carlyte, 

87. Barnes, Economic History 145' 

88. Cambrlage Medieval History. 
VII. 741. 

29. Coulton. Medieval Vlllage3U-lB. 

30. Ibid., 21. 243 

81. Coulton. Panorama. 92. 
38. Speculum. Apr. 1940. 
88. Ibid., 155. 

84. Chrteoubriand. Vicomte de, 
Tht Osntus of Christianity .iv.1.4 
35. Coulton Medieval Village, 119. 



- iVY — 



36. Lacrolx. Paul. Military and 
Religious Life in the Middle 
Age. 166. 

37. Hitti. History of the Arabs. 663; 
Hrnold Legacy of Islam 131. 

38. Lacroix.Pahl.Sc/Mcff and Litera- 
ture in the Middle Ages. 299{. 

39. Beaumonofr in Selnobos. 65, 

40. Coulton. Panorama. 60. 

41. Voltaire. Works. XIII.. 181. 

42. Thompson. Feudal Germany. 801 

43. Carlyle. R.W. Medieval Polotical 

Theory. 463. 

44. Pollock and Maitland. II. 242. 

45. Maine. Sir H. Ancient Low. 18$. 

46. Coulton Medieval Village. 628. 

47. Jenks. E. Law and Politics in 
the Middle Ages. 23. 

48. Coulton Medical Village. 187. 

49. Lea. Superstition and Force. 286, 
297, 314. 

50. Coulton, Panorama 379. 
61. Lea. Superstition. 178. 
52. Ibid., MOf, 179. 

63. Feignoboi. 79. 

65. Sumner W.Q.Folkwavs. 622. 

56. Barnes. Western Civilization. I. 
798. 

57. Seignobos. 81. 

68'. Coulton, Medieval Village. 248. 

59. Lacroix. Mitiinry Life, 49. 

60. Divis, W.S. Life on a Medieval 
Barony. 176. 



61. Coulton. From St. Francis to 
Dante. SO. 

62. Seignobos. 74. 

63. Coulton, Chaucer and Bis Eng- 
land. 199. 

64. Coulton, Panorama. 247. 

65. Prestage, F., Cktvalry. 72. 

66. Saeculum. Apr. 1930. 189. 

67. Thornpike, Magit and Socience. 
II. 31. 

68. Hoover, H., and Gibbons. H,A. 
Conditions of a Lasting Peace29. 

69. Prestage. 75. 

70. Coulton. Panorama. 289. 

71. Traill. I. 379. 

72. In Brif'ault. Mothers, III. 383, 

73. Bebel. 63. 

74. Prestige, 9, 

75. Rowbotham, 283. 

76. Prestige, 89. 

77. Davis. Life on a Medieval Barony 
77. 

78. Vossler. K., Medieval Culture I. 
299; Taylor Medieval Mind, II, 
6<2. 

79. Miss Amy Kelly in Speculum, 

1937, 5. 

80. Rombotham, 224, 235. 

81. Ibid., 249. 

82. Ibid., 245.